Nylon/ PA6 / PA6 Glass Fibre/ PA66
Synthetic polyamides are commonly used in textiles, automotive industry, carpets, kitchen utensils and sportswear due to their high durability and strength. The transportation manufacturing industry is the major consumer, accounting for 35% of polyamide (PA) consumption.
A.S Resin (Styrene-acrylonitrile Resin)
Styrene acrylonitrile resin is a copolymer plastic consisting of styrene and acrylonitrile. It is also known as SAN. It is widely used in place of polystyrene owing to its greater thermal resistance. The relative composition is typically between 70 to 80% by weight styrene and 20 to 30% acrylonitrile. Larger acrylonitrile content improves mechanical properties and chemical resistance, but also adds a yellow tint to the normally transparent plastic.
- food containers
- water bottles
- computer products
- packaging material
- battery cases
- plastic optical fibres.
PBT unfilled/ Glass Fibre (Polybutylene terephthalate)
Polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) is a thermoplastic engineering polymer that is used as an insulator in the electrical and electronics industries. It is a thermoplastic (semi-)crystalline polymer, and a type of polyester. PBT is resistant to solvents, shrinks very little during forming, is mechanically strong, heat-resistant up to 150 °C (or 200 °C with glass-fibre reinforcement) and can be treated with flame retardants to make it non-combustible. It was developed by Britain's Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI.
PBT is closely related to other thermoplastic polyesters. Compared to PET (polyethylene terephthalate), PBT has slightly lower strength and rigidity, slightly better impact resistance, and a slightly lower glass transition temperature. PBT and PET are sensitive to hot water above 60 °C (140 °F). PBT and PET need UV protection if used outdoors, and most grades of these polyesters are flammable, although additives can be used to improve both UV and flammability properties.
Polybutylene terephthalate is used for housings in electrical engineering, but also in automotive construction as plug connectors and in households for example in showerheads or irons. It is also found processed into fibers in toothbrushes, false eyelashes and is used in the keycaps of some high end computer keyboards because the texture is highly resistant to wear and discoloration due to UV radiation.
PBT can also be made into yarn. This has a natural stretch similar to Lycra and can be incorporated into sports wear. Due to its chlorine resistance it is commonly found in swimwear. Further, recent studies have shown that PBT has superior UV properties to PET based fabrics such as T400.
PBT, especially glass fibre grades can be effectively fire retarded with halogen free products. Phosphorus-based flame retardant systems are used in these Fire-safe polymers and are based on aluminium diethyl phosphinate and synergists. They are designed to meet UL 94 flammability tests as well as Glow Wire Ignition Tests (GWIT), Glow Wire Flammability Test (GWFI) and Comparative Tracking Index (CTI). Main applications are in the electrical and electronics (E∓E) industry.
PMMA/ ARCYLIC (Poly methyl methacrylate)
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also known as Acrylic or Acrylic glass is a transparent thermoplastic often used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass. The same material can be used as a casting resin, in inks and coatings, and has many other uses.
Uses: Being transparent and durable, PMMA is a versatile material and has been used in a wide range of fields and applications such as rear-lights and instrument clusters for vehicles, appliances, and lenses for glasses. PMMA in the form of sheets affords to shatter resistant panels for building windows, skylights, bulletproof security barriers, signs & displays, sanitary ware (bathtubs), LCD screens, furniture and many other applications. It is also used for coating polymers based on MMA provides outstanding stability against environmental conditions with reduced emission of VOC. Methacrylate polymers are used extensively in medical and dental applications where purity and stability are critical to performance.
Polyoxymethylene (POM), also known as Acetal, polyacetal, and Polyformaldehyde, is an engineering thermoplastic used in precision parts requiring high stiffness, low friction, and excellent dimensional stability. As with many other synthetic polymers, it is produced by different chemical firms with slightly different formulas and sold variously by such names as Delrin, Celcon, Ramtal, Duracon, Kepital, and Hostaform.
POM is characterized by its high strength, hardness and rigidity to −40 °C. POM is intrinsically opaque white, due to its high crystalline composition, but it is available in all colors. POM has a density of 1.410–1.420 g/cm3.
Typical applications for injection-molded POM include high-performance engineering components such as small gear wheels, eyeglass frames, ball bearings, ski bindings, fasteners, guns, knife handles, and lock systems. The material is widely used in the automotive and consumer electronics industry.
- Mechanical: gears, sliding and guiding elements, housing parts, springs, chains, screws, nuts, fan wheels, pump parts, valve bodies.
- Electrical engineering: insulators, bobbins, connectors, parts for electronic devices such as televisions, telephones, etc.
- Vehicle: fuel sender unit, light/control stalk/combination switch (including shifter for light, turn signal), power windows, door lock systems, articulated shells.
- Model: model railway parts, such as trucks (bogies) and hand rails (handle bars). POM is tougher than ABS, comes in bright translucent colors, and is not paintable.
- Hobbies: radio-controlled helicopter main gear, landing skid, yo-yos, vaping drip tips.
- Medical: insulin pen, metered dose inhalers (MDI).
- Food industry: Food and Drug Administration has approved some grades of POM for milk pumps, coffee spigots, filter housings and food conveyors.
- Furniture: hardware, locks, handles, hinges.
- Construction: structural glass - pod holder for point
- Packaging: aerosol cans, vehicle tanks.
- Sports: paintball accessories. It is often used for machined parts of paintball markers that do not require the strength of aluminium, such as handles and reciprocating bolts. POM is also used in airsoft guns to reduce piston noise.
- Longboarding: puck material for slide gloves help the rider touch the road and lean on their hand to slow down, stop, or perform tricks.
- Clothing: zippers.
- Music: picks, Irish flutes, bagpipes, practice chanters, harpsichord plectra, instrument mouthpieces, tips of some drum sticks.
- Dining: fully automatic coffee brewers; knife handles (particularly folding knives).
- Horology: watch bracelet
- Vapor/e-cigarrette accessories: material used in the manufacturing of most "Drip Tips" (Mouthpiece).
- Tobacco products: The BIC Group uses Delrin for their lighters
It is a thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate groups in their chemical structures. Polycarbonates used in engineering are strong, tough materials, and some grades are optically transparent. They are easily worked, molded, and thermoformed. Because of these properties, polycarbonates find many applications.
- Electronic Components
- Construction Material
- Data Storage
- Automotive including Aircraft, Railway & Security components
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)
ABS is a terpolymer made by polymerizing styrene and acrylonitrile in the presence of polybutadiene. The proportions can vary from 15 to 35% acrylonitrile, 5 to 30% butadiene and 40 to 60% styrene. The result is a long chain of polybutadiene criss-crossed with shorter chains of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile). The nitrile groups from neighboring chains, being polar, attract each other and bind the chains together, making ABS stronger than pure polystyrene. The styrene gives the plastic a shiny, impervious surface. The polybutadiene, a rubbery substance, provides toughness even at low temperatures. For the majority of applications, ABS can be used between −20 and 80 °C (−4 and 176 °F) as its mechanical properties vary with temperature. The properties are created by rubber toughening, where fine particles of elastomer are distributed throughout the rigid matrix.
ABS's light weight and ability to be injection molded and extruded make it useful in manufacturing products such as drain-waste-vent (DWV) pipe systems, musical instruments (recorders, plastic clarinets, and piano movements), golf club heads (because of its good shock absorbance), automotive trim components, automotive bumper bars, medical devices for blood access, enclosures for electrical and electronic assemblies, protective headgear, white water canoes, buffer edging for furniture and joinery panels, luggage and protective carrying cases, small kitchen appliances, and toys, including Lego and Kre-O bricks. Household and consumer goods comprise the major applications of ABS. Keyboard keycaps are commonly made out of ABS.
ABS plastic ground down to an average diameter of less than 1 micrometer is used as the colorant in some tattoo inks. When extruded into a filament, ABS plastic is a common material used in 3D printers.
Styrene Butadiene Copolymer (K.Resin)
Styrene-butadiene or styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) describe families of synthetic rubbers derived from styrene and butadiene (the version developed by Goodyear is called Neolite). These materials have good abrasion resistance and good aging stability when protected by additives. In 2012, more than 5.4 million tonnes of SBR were processed worldwide. About 50% of car tires are made from various types of SBR. The styrene/butadiene ratio influences the properties of the polymer: with high styrene content, the rubbers are harder and less rubbery. SBR is not to be confused with a thermoplastic elastomer made from the same monomers, styrene-butadiene block copolymer.
It is a commodity material which competes with natural rubber. The elastomer is used widely in pneumatic tires. This application mainly calls for E-SBR, although S-SBR is growing in popularity. Other uses include shoe heels and soles, gaskets, and even chewing gum.
Latex (emulsion) SBR is extensively used in coated papers, being one of the cheapest resins to bind pigmented coatings.
It is also used in building applications, as a sealing and binding agent behind renders as an alternative to PVA, but is more expensive. In the latter application, it offers better durability, reduced shrinkage and increased flexibility, as well as being resistant to emulsification in damp conditions.
SBR is often used as part of cement based substructural (basement) waterproofing systems where as a liquid it is mixed with water to form the Gauging solution for mixing the powdered Tanking material to a slurry. SBR aids the bond strength, reduces the potential for shrinkage and adds an element of flexibility.
It is also used by speaker driver manufacturers as the material for Low Damping Rubber Surrounds. Additionally, it is used in some rubber cutting boards. SBR is also used as a binder in lithium-ion battery electrodes, in combination with carboxymethyl cellulose as a water-based alternative for, e.g. polyvinylidene fluoride.
Styrene-butane rubber is also used in gasketed-plate heat exchangers. It is used at moderate temperature up to 85 deg C, (358 K) for aqueous systems.
Polypropylene Glass Fibre
Automotive under-bonnet applications, cooling system expansion tanks, fan mountings, belt covers. Washing machine components.